Autores: David Szpilman, Anthony Handley, Joost Bierens e James Orlowski
Foto: Ivonei Polsin/PMSC

Artigo de médico brasileiro no New England Journal of Medicine revela números alarmantes e ressalta práticas de salvamento importantes

Referências Bibliográficas 

Consulte o artigo original no

Peden M, McGee K, Sharma K. The injury chart book: a graphical overview of the global burden of injuries. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.

Injuries and violence prevention: noncommunicable diseases and mental health: fact sheet on drowning. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003 (

Lu TH, Lunetta P, Walker S. Quality of cause-of-death reporting using ICD-10 drowning codes: a descriptive study of 69 countries. BMC Med Res Methodol 2010; 10:30.

Borse NN, Gilchrist J, Dellinger AM, Rudd RA, Ballesteros MF, Sleet DA. CDC childhood injury report: patterns of unintentional Injuries among 0-19 year olds in the United States, 2000-2006. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008.

Linnan M, Anh LV, Cuong PV, et al. Special series on child injury: child mortality and injury in Asia: survey results and evidence. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Center, 2007.

Modell JH. Prevention of needless deaths from drowning. South Med J 2010; 103:650-3.

Cummings P, Mueller BA, Quan L. Association between wearing a personal floatation device and death by drowning among recreational boaters: a matched cohort analysis of United States Coast Guard data. Inj Prev 2011; 17:156-9.

Bell GS, Gaitatzis A, Bell CL, Johnson AL, Sander JW. Drowning in people with epilepsy: how great is the risk? Neurology 2008; 71:578-82.

Mitchell RJ, Williamson AM, Olivier J. Estimates of drowning morbidity and mortality adjusted for exposure to risk. Inj Prev 2010; 16:261-6.

Branche CM, Stewart S, eds. Lifeguard effectiveness: a report of the Working Group. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2001.

Informações de Saúde: Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. Brasília: Departamento de Informática do SUS, 2008 (

Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009 (

Van Beeck EF, Branche CM, Szpilman D, Modell JH, Bierens JJLM. A new definition of drowning: towards documentation and prevention of a global public health problem. Bull World Health Organ 2005; 83:853-6.

Idris AH, Berg RA, Bierens J, et al. Recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of data from drowning: the “Utstein style.” Circulation 2003; 108:2565-74.

Youn CS, Choi SP, Yim HW. Out-ofhospital cardiac arrest due to drowning: an Utstein Style report of 10 years of experience from St. Mary`s Hospital. Resuscitation 2009; 80:778-83.

Sterba JA, Lundgren CE. Diving bradycardia and breath-holding time in man. Undersea Biomed Res 1985; 12:139-50.

Orlowski JP, Abulleil MM, Phillips JM. The hemodynamic and cardiovascular effects of near-drowning in hypotonic, isotonic, or hypertonic solutions. Ann Emerg Med 1989; 18:1044-9.

Grmec S, Strnad M, Podgorsek D. Comparison of the characteristics and outcome among patients suffering from out-of-hospital primary cardiac arrest and drowning victims in cardiac arrest. Int J Emerg Med 2009; 2:7-12.

Tipton MJ, Golden FS. A proposed decision-making guide for the search, rescue and resuscitation of submersion (head under) victims based on expert opinion. Resuscitation 2011; 82:819-24.

Modell JH, Graves SA, Ketover A. Clinical course of 91 consecutive neardrowning victims. Chest 1976; 70:231-8.

Szpilman D. Near-drowning and drowning classification: a proposal to stratify mortality based on the analysis of 1831 cases. Chest 1997; 112:660-5.

Polderman KH. Application of therapeutic hypothermia in the ICU: opportunities and pitfalls of a promising treatment modality. Part 1: indications and evidence. Intensive Care Med 2004; 30:556-75.

Venema AM, Groothoff JW, Bierens JJ. The role of bystanders during rescue and resuscitation of drowning victims. Resuscitation 2010; 81:434-9.

Szpilman D, Soares M. In-water resuscitation – is it worthwhile? Resuscitation 2004; 63:25-31.

Watson RS, Cummings P, Quan L, Bratton S, Weiss NS. Cervical spine injuries among submersion victims. J Trauma 2001; 51:658-62.

Szpilman D, Handley A. Positioning the drowning victim. In: Bierens JJLM, ed. Handbook on drowning: prevention, rescue, and treatment. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2006:336-41.

Orlowski JP, Szpilman D. Drowning: rescue, resuscitation, and reanimation. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001; 48:627-46.

Vanden Hoek TL, Morrison LJ, Shuster M, et al et al. Part 12: cardiac arrest in special situations: drowning: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2010; 122:Suppl 3:S847-S848.

Soar J, Perkins GD, Abbasc G, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010. Section 8.

Cardiac arrest in special circumstances: electrolyte abnormalities, poisoning, drowning, accidental hypothermia, hyperthermia, asthma, anaphylaxis, cardiac surgery, trauma, pregnancy, electrocution. Resuscitation 2010; 81:1400-33.

International Life Saving Federation Medical Committee. Clarification statement on cardiopulmonary resuscitation for drowning. Leuven, Belgium: International Life Saving Federation, April 3, 2008(

Baker PA, Webber JB. Failure to ventilate with supraglottic airways after drowning. Anaesth Intensive Care 2011; 39:675-7.

Manolios N, Mackie I. Drowning and near-drowning on Australian beaches patrolled by life-savers: a 10-year study, 1973-1983. Med J Aust 1988; 148:165-71.

Claesson A, Svensson L, Silfverstolpe J, Herlitz J. Characteristics and outcome among patients suffering out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to drowning. Resuscitation 2008; 76:381-7.

Szpilman D, Elmann J, Cruz-Filho FES. Drowning classification: a revalidation study based on the analysis of 930 cases over 10 years. Presented at the World Congress on Drowning, Amsterdam, June 26-28, 2002. abstract.

Gregorakos L, Markou N, Psalida V, et al. Near-drowning: clinical course of lung injury in adults. Lung 2009; 187:93-7.

Diamond W, MacDonald RD. Submersion and early-onset acute respiratory distress syndrome: a case report. Prehosp Emerg Care 2011; 15:288-93.

Kochanek PM, Bayir H. Titrating oxygen during and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. JAMA 2010; 303:2190-1.

Weiss SJ, Muniz A, Ernst AA, Lippton HL, Nick TG. The effect of prior hyperthermia on the physiological response to norepinephrine. Resuscitation 2000; 45:201-7.

Beerman S, Lofgren B. Automated external defibrillator in the aquatic environment. In: Bierens JJLM, ed. Handbook on drowning: prevention, rescue, and treatment. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2006:331-6.

Quan L, Cummings P. Characteristics of drowning by different age groups. Inj Prev 2003; 9:163-8.

Rafaat KT, Spear RM, Kuelbs C, Parsapour K, Peterson B. Cranial computed tomographic findings in a large group of children with drowning: diagnostic, prognostic, and forensic implications. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2008; 9:567-72.

Oehmichen M, Hennig R, Meissner C. Near-drowning and clinical laboratory changes. Leg Med (Tokyo) 2008; 10:1-5.

Eggink WF, Bruining HA. Respiratory distress syndrome caused by near-or secondary drowning and treatment by positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation. Neth J Med 1977; 20:162-7.

Foex BA, Boyd R. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary: corticosteroids in the management of neardrowning. Emerg Med J 2001; 18:465-6.

Van Berkel M, Bierens JJ, Lie RL, et al. Pulmonary oedema, pneumonia and mortality in submersions victims: a retrospective study in 125 patients. Intensive Care Med 1996; 22:101-7.

Wood C. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary: BET 1: prophylactic antibiotics in near-drowning. Emerg Med J 2010; 27:393-4.

Kapur N, Slater A, McEniery J, Greer ML, Masters IB, Chang AB. Therapeutic bronchoscopy in a child with sand aspiration and respiratory failure from near drowning – case report and literature review. Pediatr Pulmonol 2009; 44:1043-7.

Cubattoli L, Franchi F, Coratti G. Surfactant therapy for acute respiratory failure after drowning: two children victim of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 2009; 80:1088-9.

Takano Y, Hirosako S, Yamaguchi T, et al. Nitric oxide inhalation as an effective therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome due to near-drowning: a case report. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 1999; 37:997-1002. (In Japanese.)

Gauger PG, Pranikoff T, Schreiner RJ, Moler FW, Hirschl RB. Initial experience with partial liquid ventilation in pediatric patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 1996; 24:16-22.

Warner D, Knape J. Recommendations and consensus brain resuscitation in the drowning victim. In Bierens JJLM, ed. Handbook on drowning: prevention, rescue, and treatment. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2006:436-9.

Guenther U, Varelmann D, Putensen C, Wrigge H. Extended therapeutic hypothermia for several days during extracorporeal membrane-oxygenation after drowning and cardiac arrest: two cases of survival with no neurological sequelae. Resuscitation 2009; 80:379-81.

Spicer ST, Quinn D, Nyi Nyi NN, Nankivell BJ, Hayes JM, Savdie E. Acute renal impairment after immersion and near drowning. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10:382-6.

Eich C, Bräuer A, Timmermann A, et al. Outcome of 12 drowned children with attempted resuscitation on cardiopulmonary bypass: an analysis of variables based on the “Utstein Style for Drowning.” Resuscitation 2007; 75:42-52.

Gilbert M, Busund R, Skagseth A, Nilsen PÅ, Solbø JP. Resuscitation from accidental hypothermia of 13.7°C with cardiac arrest. Lancet 2000; 355:375-6.

Moran K, Quan L, Franklin R, Bennett E. Where the evidence and expert opinion meet: a review of open-water: recreational safety messages. Int J Aquatic Res Educ 2011; 5:251-70.

Quan L, Bennett E, Branche CM. Interventions to prevent drowning. In: Doll LS, Bonzo SE, Sleet DA, et al., eds. Handbook of injury and violence prevention. New York: Springer, 2007:81-96. Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Por favor digite seu comentário!
Por favor, digite seu nome aqui